I recently wanted to author a Node.js native module for inclusion into an application that only runs on Windows. I wanted to keep the size and dependencies as small as possible. I hit numerous pain-points. This is my journey.

Note: This first post will deal only with consideration in using the C runtime library. A follow-up post will discuss how to build a Node.js native module with the build options laid out below.

The C runtime library

Dealing with the C runtime library can be complicated on Windows. The standard cross-platform APIs you can write with are highly valuable, but on Windows you have two ways to use the CRT, and both have pros and cons - especially when it come to small binaries shipped via a package manager

Note: Many of the issues I hit regarding the CRT for Node.js binaries I subsequently found were also hit by Steve Dower with Python extensions for many of the same reasons. I highly recommend reading his blog posts on the topic for greater detail on the underlying issues.

Dynamically linking

This is the recommended approach, with minimal issues if the CRT DLLs are already present on the machine. If you are distributing a large package for install, then you can bundle the CRT redistributable into your installer to make sure. However, when you are trying to distribute a small package via npm - that should install with minimal install scripts, permissions, and package size - this isn’t a good option.

Recently an updated CRT has begun to be included on Windows systems. (See this blog post on the Universal C runtime). However this is not a solution as:

  1. This only includes the C-runtime, not the vcruntime or C++ bits, so those will likely still need to be distributed
  2. This updated system-level CRT still may not be present on a large number of Windows machines. (It is either applied as an update or a download for certain Windows versions).

This makes dynamically linking in the CRT a poor option for apps/packages that ship as a small standalone binary without a full Windows installer currently.

Static linking

Another option is to compile the needed CRT functionality directly into your binary. This eliminates all runtime dependencies on separate CRT binaries, but still has issues to contend with:

  1. Certain patterns are then to be avoided, specifically those that may share state across binaries that use the C runtime library. Basically, certain functionality in the CRT depends on global/share state within the process, but if multiple binaries statically link the CRT, then each has its own copy of this state. (This link contains some details).
  2. Loosely related to the above, each initialization of the CRT (which now happens in each statically linked copy), consumes some finite resource - the most problematic of these being thread/fiber-local storage. If you load enough binaries that statically link the CRT, you could potentially exhaust the limit, causing failures. Steve’s Python blog linked to above contains much greater detail on this.
  3. Size. While in a real app, even a few MB might be trivial, I was aiming for a minimal package size. My module is very lightweight, and with dynamical linking to the CRT the binary was less than 20KB. But with static linking, even with minimal CRT usage, this ballooned to close to 100KB. (Which may still not be much compared to many npm packages commonly installed today, but still seemed excessive to me).

Note that building native Node.js modules using node-gyp today uses this static linking approach.

No CRT linking

There is another option: Don’t use the C/C++ runtime libraries. For the limited functionality my module required, and as I was only targeting Windows, this was a perfectly valid option. However it did come with some interesting challenges we’ll cover along the way. (Most notably: Initialization and delay-loading).

Building with the various CRT options

But first, let’s see how these options differ in compiler flags and resulting binary size. We’ll use a basic console application for simplicity.

To follow along, open a x64 Native Tools Command Prompt, (assuming you have Visual Studio 2017 or the C++ Build Tools installed), and create a file named myapp.cpp. Enter the below code, which is about the simplest “Hello, world” C++ program you can write.

#include <iostream>

int main() {
    std::cout << "Hello, world" << std::endl;

Compile this at the command line with cl /O1 /MT /EHsc myapp.cpp . The flags given here are:

  • /O1 fully optimize with a preference for minimal size
  • /MT statically link in the C runtime library
  • /EHsc enable C++ exceptions (makes little difference here, but avoids a build warning)

The output size this gives me is:

  224,768 myapp.exe

Nearly 225kb for “Hello, world”! For reference, compile again linking the CRT dynamically (changing the /MT option for /MD). On my machine, this results in:

  11,264 myapp.exe

So of that ~225KB, all but ~11KB is C/C++ runtime code that can be dynamically link in. To see the DLLs that the binary depends on and what it imports from them run the command:

dumpbin /dependents /imports myapp.exe

This will show the few DLLs this application will load at runtime, and the functions it will use from them. (Which is quite a few for such a simple application).

But as outlined above, this isn’t really an option for an npm distributed Node.js native module, so back to static linking with the /MT option for now.

Next to try getting rid of the C++ code and stick to plain old C. Change the code to the below:

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
    puts("Hello, world");

Compile this with cl /O1 /MT myapp.cpp (note that exception support is not needed now). This now gives me a binary size of:

  97,280 myapp.exe

That’s a pretty significant saving, going from nearly 225kb to under 100kb by switch to plain C.

And finally, not using the C runtime at all, and just using the APIs provided by Windows. You give up numerous things here (not least portability and the ability to use C++ exceptions), but let’s give it a shot. Change myapp.cpp to:

#include <windows.h>

int main() {
    char msg[] = "Hello, world\n";
    DWORD written = 0;
        (void*)msg, sizeof(msg) - 1, &written, NULL

The command line to compile now becomes a bit more complicated, namely:

cl /O1 /GS- myapp.cpp kernel32.lib /link /NODEFAULTLIB /ENTRY:main

Note that /MT is no longer needed, as we are not linking the CRT in at all. The additional options are:

  • /NODEFAULTLIB tells the linker it to ignore ALL the default libraries (e.g. the CRT)
  • /ENTRY:main tell the linker to run main on launch (rather than the usual CRT entry point)
  • kernel32.lib says we want to link to the kernel32.dll Windows system binary
  • /GS- disables additional runtime security checks (as some depend on the CRT)

With that, compiling on machine now results in a binary of:

  2,560 myapp.exe

A fully functional x64 Windows application at 2.5KB in size! You can run it and see "Hello, world" written to the console. At the developer command prompt you can run dumpbin /dependents /imports myapp.exe again and see that it is dependent on only one other DLL at runtime (kernel32.dll) and imports just two functions from it. Nice!

In the next post we’ll discuss how to build a tiny Node.js native module (again, for Windows only) using only the OS (and Node.js) APIs via the approach outlined above.

Continue on to part 2